Learn Japanese, Step 2: Katakana

real-katakana

NOTE: This article is part of a series.  If you would like to start at the beginning, please click here.  Here for Part 3.

You have now mastered Hiragana.  Congratulations!  You can identify them, write them, hear them, and verbalize them.  Perhaps you have even become familiar with things like greetings and simple sentences.  You are comfortable with the sounds and rhythm of spoken Japanese.  Where do you go from here?

The next item on your list is Katakana.

What is Katakana?

Katakana「 カタカナ・片仮名 」consists of the Chinese characters for piece, temporary, and name.  This could be translated as “fragmented temporary name”.  Katakana is another set of 46 syllabic symbols which could be considered as a mirror image of Hiragana, although different in purpose. Katakana originated with Buddhist monks of the Heian Period (794-1185 C.E.).  While working with manuscripts, they simplified Chinese characters by extracting a piece from many of them to form a type of shorthand to aid in efficiency.  The bits that were taken away became Katakana.  Originally, its use was exclusive to men, for historical documents, legal documents, and other official writings, but later it branched out to be utilized by all people.

Uses of カタカナ

While Hiragana is used for words of Japanese origin, a major implementation of Katakana is for use with words of foreign origin.  Words have been imported from many languages around the world, for example:

global-hands.jpg

Portuguese:  pãoパンbread

English:  コンピュータcomputer

French:  pâtissierパティシエpastry chef

Russian:  Коксованияコンビナートindustrial complex

German:  Arbeitアルバイト part-time job

Additionally, Katakana is commonly used for animal names:

neko.jpg

ネコ・cat

イルカdolphin

キリンgiraffe

ライオン・lion

サメ・shark

Company names:

toyota katakana.jpg

トヨタ・Toyota

セガゲームス・SEGA (games)

キヤノン・Canon

イオングループ・AEON (group)

ソニー・SONY

…and for many other things, including: in comic books「漫画・まん」,  in foreign names (Your name will always be spelled in Katakana.) , for emphasis, (similar to bold type, italics, or ALL CAPS) , technical terminology, and product names.

NOTE: Katakana is often used in advertising.

Coke in katakana.jpg

Learning カタカナ

There are two methods I would recommend.

Option 1: Learn Katakana, The Ultimate Guide

キ.jpg

This guide was created by Koichi of Tofugu.com.  It is a straight-forward presentation of all the Katakana.  If you follow the directions exactly all the way through, you will know Katakana at the end.

NOTE: I am not in favor of the illustration for オ

Option 2: Japanese From Zero, Book 2

jfz2.png

This is an excellent series by George Trombley of YesJapan.com.  The second book teaches all the Katakana slowly over the span of 12 lessons, integrating the symbols from the previous lessons as you progress. Vocabulary, grammar, and exercises are included in each lesson, and there is even a new video series with the author. (Book 2 starts with Video 32.)

NOTE: I advise using both of these consecutively.  (Learn Katakana, The Ultimate Guide will serve as a solid introduction, and Japanese From Zero, Book 2 will provide helpful reinforcement of the Katakana as you continue to develop your fluency in Japanese.)

Writing カタカナ

shi tsu su n.png

There are similarities to Hiragana for some of the Katakana, but quite few of them look different.  It is easy to fall behind with writing practice, because Katakana does not always appear as frequently as Hiragana, but it does appear, so make sure to practice just like you did with Hiragana.  Stroke order can be taxing, especially for the four pictured above.  If you see these written with a brush, the flow of strokes becomes more clear.

A (“Love”) Story for Remembering  シ , ツ , ソ , and ン

love story.jpg

: [The Romaji for シ is SHI, which in English can sound like SHE.]  So, imagine a guy who sees a beautiful girl.  He might turn his head quickly, and with a funny look say, “She シ is so beautiful.”

ツ : [The Romaji for ツ is TSU, which in English can sound like YOU…if you say it in a funny voice.] Then, when the girl notices him looking her way, she smiles and says, “You ツ …are you ツ …looking at me?”

ソ : [The Romaji for ソ is SO, which can sound like SOU or, in Hiragana: そう ]  And so, ソ he winks one eye and responds, ソ・「 そうです。」  (“Yes, I am”.)

She replies, “Well, would you like to get a coffee sometime?”

ン : [The Romaji for ン is N. In Japanese, there is a way to confirm something by saying UN, or in Hiragana: うん ] He answers ン ,「 うん。(“Yes.”)  Let’s go for coffee later on.」

And they lived happily ever after, I guess…

NOTE: This story is original to me.  (I conceived it.)

Listening for カタカナ

listening.jpg

The easy thing about listening for Katakana is that usually it’s a dead give away.  Anything that does not sound like Japanese is probably Katakana.  You will want to keep an ear out for words that sound like English, or at least sound “Englishy”.  If you think you hear one, it is probably written in Katakana.  Keep in mind that Japanese only has 46 native sounds, so other sounds that are not native to Japan can be challenging for a Japanese person to pronounce.  This accounts for the variations in pronunciation between Katakana words and their source words.

For Optimal Success with カタカナ:

  1. Write them every day
  2. Follow the correct stroke order (especially with シ , ツ , ソ , and ン)
  3. Print out and post a Katakana chart on the wall at your home or office
  4. Read…instruction manuals? (That might be boring. Just be on the look-out for Katakana.)
  5. Listen to audio that might include Katakana transcribe the words you hear.
  6. Watch subtitled videos
  7. Practice typing
  8. Find out how to write your name.  (Accuracy may vary.  Confirm with native speaker.)
  9. Download an app

You are welcome to leave any questions or comments about the article or send them to me via Twitter @cbilbrey12. To receive updates on forthcoming articles, please follow me.

Thank you for reading.

 

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